GLOSSARY

Computer Assisted Translation Tool (CAT tool), or simply the acronym CAT, refers to computer programs that leverage translation memories and other terminology tools to increase the productivity of translators and improve management and terminology consistency. SDL Trados Studio for instance, is a CAT tool.

Artificial Intelligence is the set of studies and techniques whose aim is to ultimately produce machines, especially electronic calculators, that solve problems and replicate human intelligence activities. Automatic translation is considered an AI application.

In computer science, the Application Programming Interface (API) refers to a set of procedures designed to perform a given task; often, this term designates the software libraries of a programming language.

A sworn translation is a translated document whose consistency with the source text has been certified.

Desktop publishing (DTP) is the set of procedures and techniques for creating, paginating and producing editorial products or other texts intended or not for publication, in order to make them consistent with a desired format (formatting) through the use of textual and graphic computer programs.

In Economics, and, by extension in the IT and other fields, internationalisation is the process of adapting a company, a product or a brand conceived and designed for a defined market or environment to other international markets or environments, and. in particular, other countries and cultures.

It is a quality management system specifically created for medical devices. In the context of its application, a medical device means any apparatus, instrument, machine, equipment, or reagent for in-vitro use, or even a computer program or a similar product used in the healthcare field.

The ISO 17100 standard defines the requirements for all aspects of the translation process, which directly affect the quality and supply of translation services. It includes provisions relating to the management of fundamental processes, minimum qualification requirements and availability of resources.

The ISO 18587 standard defines the requirements of the complete and human post-editing process applicable to the output of an automatic translation machine, and of post editors’ skills.

Translation notarisation by way of an Apostille affixed by the competent State Prosecutor’s Office is required when the translated document is submitted to bodies or agencies abroad or at foreign embassies and consulates in Italy.

Life sciences fields focus on the scientific study of living organisms – such as microorganisms, plants, animals and humans – as well as related subjects, such as bioethics.

Localisation refers to the process by which original text contents are attuned to the linguistic and cultural systems of the target geo-linguistic areas.

Translation memory (TM) is a particular type of database used in software programs, i.e., CAT tools, designed to assist and enhance the translation process.

Machine Translation (MT) is the translation approach that leverages computer tools for the automatic translation of texts from and into any language. The best-known approaches are statistical automatic translation and automatic translation based on neural networks.

Machine Translation Post-Editing refers to the editing of a text translated by a translation machine.

Post-editors are linguists who have undergone specific training and honed professional experience in the post-editing of texts produced by an automatic translation machine.

The Quality Assurance process encompasses a set of procedures and steps which are often rigorously standardised and ISO compliant and whose aim is to guarantee translation quality.

In the field of machine learning, an artificial neural network refers to a computational model composed of artificial “neurons” vaguely inspired by the simplification of a biological neural network.

A terminology database (term base) allows managing a terminology inventory. Terminology databases facilitate assisted translation (see CAT tool) using systems that rely on translation memories. They help to use specific and corporate terminology that is uniform, unambiguous and consolidated, as well as to avoid the use of inappropriate terms. In the translation process, terminology databases also generally serve to propose the translations of terms, thus speeding up a translator’s work.

Patent translation refers to the full or partial translation of a patent, which is required for patent filing or validation purposes.

Medical translation consists in the translation of medical-scientific documents, such as, manuals for medical devices, pharmaceutical marketing documents, clinical, regulatory and technical documents, including, but not limited to information material, medical bulletins and leaflets.

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